TRUS e della prostata

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Journal of Ultrasound. Transrectal ultrasound TRUS has significantly improved the diagnostic rate, nevertheless, the correlation between findings on TRUS and clinically significant prostate cancer PCa is not completely understood. Between April TRUS e della prostata Mayat our Department of Urology, the clinical anatomy of preoperative regions and excised specimens was reviewed macroscopically for 68 cases of radical retropubic prostatectomy for PCa and compared to ultrasound images obtained by TRUS.

In our opinion, it is very important to recognize preoperatively the possibility of cancer extracapsular extension to the DF and to the rectum wall, using a simple and low cost examination as TRUS.

The knowledge TRUS e della prostata the fascial structures anatomy around the prostate is necessary to perform a nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, avoiding excessive bleeding, iatrogenic positive surgical margin, and post-operative complications.

La conoscenza anatomica delle strutture fasciali intorno alla prostata è necessaria per eseguire una prostatectomia radicale nerve-sparing, evitando un eccessivo sanguinamento, la positività iatrogena dei margini chirurgici e le complicanze post-operatorie. All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation institutional and national and with the Helsinki Declaration ofas revised in 5.

All patients provided written informed consent to enrolment in the study and to the inclusion in this article of information that could potentially lead to their identification. The study was conducted in accordance with TRUS e della prostata institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals.

Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Role of transrectal ultrasound in the diagnosis of extracapsular prostate cancer. Original Article First Online: 30 January Introduction Transrectal ultrasound TRUS has significantly improved the diagnostic rate, nevertheless, the correlation between findings on TRUS and clinically significant prostate cancer PCa is not completely understood. Methods Between April and Mayat our Department of Urology, the clinical anatomy of preoperative regions and excised specimens was reviewed macroscopically for 68 cases of radical retropubic prostatectomy for PCa and compared to ultrasound images obtained by TRUS.

Conclusion In our opinion, it is very important to recognize preoperatively the possibility of cancer extracapsular extension to the DF and to the rectum wall, using a simple and low cost examination as TRUS. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Informed consent All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation institutional and national and with the Helsinki Declaration ofas revised in 5.

Human and animal TRUS e della prostata The study was conducted in accordance with all institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory TRUS e della prostata. Barrè C Open radical retropubic prostatectomy. Yao XD, Liu TRUS e della prostata, Zhang SL, Dai B et al Perioperative complications of radical retropubic prostatectomy in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer: TRUS e della prostata comparison with clinically localized prostate cancer.

Schlegel PN, Walsh PC Neuroanatomical approach to radical cystoprostatectomy TRUS e della prostata preservation TRUS e della prostata sexual function. Walz J, Burnett AL, Costello AJ et al Critical analysis of the current knowledge of surgical anatomy related to optimization of cancer control and preservation of continence and erection in candidates for radical prostatectomy.

Raychaudhuri B, Cahill D Pelvic fasciae in urology. Shinohara K, Wheeler TM, Scardino PT The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations.

Denonvilliers CPD Anatomie du perinee. Bull Soc Anat Google Scholar. Cornu JN, Phé V, Fournier G et al Fascia surrounding the prostate: clinical and anatomical basis of the nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. Heijmink S, van Moerkerk H, Kiemeney L et al A comparison of the diagnostic performance of systematic versus ultrasound-guided biopsies of prostate cancer. Myers RP Practical surgical anatomy for radical prostatectomy.

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Language: English German. Moro 8, Cona, Ferrara Italy. Transrectal ultrasound TRUS has significantly improved the diagnostic rate, nevertheless, the TRUS e della prostata between findings on TRUS and clinically significant prostate cancer PCa TRUS e della prostata not completely understood.

Between April and Mayat our Department of Urology, the clinical anatomy of preoperative regions and excised specimens TRUS e della prostata reviewed macroscopically for 68 cases of radical retropubic prostatectomy for PCa and compared to ultrasound images obtained by TRUS.

In our opinion, it is very important to recognize preoperatively the possibility of cancer extracapsular extension to the DF and to the rectum wall, using a simple and TRUS e della prostata cost examination as TRUS.

The knowledge of the fascial structures anatomy around the prostate is necessary to perform a nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, avoiding excessive bleeding, iatrogenic positive surgical margin, and post-operative complications. La conoscenza anatomica delle strutture fasciali intorno alla prostata è necessaria per eseguire una prostatectomia radicale nerve-sparing, evitando un eccessivo sanguinamento, la positività iatrogena dei margini chirurgici e le complicanze post-operatorie.

Radical prostatectomy RP is the main option in the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer PCa [ 1 ]. However, urologists not occasionally encounter intra-operative excessive bleeding, iatrogenic positive surgical margin, and post-operative complications [ 2 ]. Nerve-sparing NS surgery aims to preserve neurovascular bundles localized close and laterally to the prostate. Advances in the anatomical elucidation of the prostate and surgical techniques have contributed to accurate procedures of RP TRUS e della prostata excellent survival [ 5 ].

However, in literature exists many disagreements regarding the description of these anatomical structures [ 6 ]. Rather, the fibromuscolar band surrounding the prostate forms an integral part of the gland. Conventional gray-scale transrectal ultrasound TRUS does not detect PCa with adequate reliability and, therefore, cannot replace systematic biopsies; it represents only the current standard method in guiding prostate biopsies [ 8 ].

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and utility of preoperative TRUS in patients with PCa to define the sonographic signs of cohesion of the DF to profile of the prostate gland to detect the local advancement of the disease.

Between April and Mayat our Department of Urology, TRUS e della prostata excised surgical specimens were reviewed macroscopically for 68 cases of radical retropubic prostatectomy for PCa and compared to ultrasound images obtained by TRUS e della prostata gray-scale B-mode prior to RP.

After ultrasound, all cases examined had a strong suspicion of extracapsular disease invasion in the DF. None of the selected cases received any pre-surgical treatment such as radiation or hormonal therapy. Before the operation we informed each patient about the indications, contents and complications, including urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, and we received a written consent back.

The operations were performed by three experienced operators. The histological analysis was performed by two pathologists. Prostatectomy specimens were step sectioned and processed according to a standard protocol.

Postoperatively, the localisation of suspicious areas in prostate imaging was compared to the pathology results. The specific sonographic sign in defining the extent of extracapsular disease was given by the characteristic image of traction in the rectal wall to the DF, causing a sign of reverb ultrasound at posterior surface of TRUS e della prostata, when the probe is retracted from the rectum Fig.

A Chi-square test was used to compare histological evaluation of RP cases and transrectal gray-scale ultrasound. P value less than 0. We prospectively examined 68 patients with PCa prior to open RP and classified as suspicious for extracapsular disease in conventional gray-scale ultrasound.

The median preoperative PSA was 7. The mean age at surgery was The median prostate size measured DF lays at the posterior and lateral angle of the prostate and covers the posterior aspect of the seminal vesicle. DF is composed of collagenous fibers and occasional muscle fibers were noted in all cases [ 11 ].

Lateral insertions of the DF in the dorsal border of the neurovascular bundles were clearly seen and incised from the prostatic base to the apex when performing a NS procedure [ 12 ]. Young et al. Rather, the prostate is surrounded by a fibromuscular band which, although incomplete anteriorly, is an intrinsic part of the gland, and it is adherent to the pelvic connective tissue in regions [ 8 ].

Ultrasonography is the most common method used to have TRUS e della prostata direct visualization of the prostate, primarily because it is essential to imaging-guided prostate biopsies. Ultrasonography has the advantages of a real-time imaging, portability, handiness use, and low cost. It can visualize the anatomy of the intraprostatic zone, with the peripheral zone showing slightly increased echogenicity compared with the central gland.

Prostate carcinoma typically presents as a hypoechoic area within the peripheral zone [ 14 ]. Jung et al. PC is not demonstrable with ultrasound, the glandular margins, however, are constantly defined by the periprostatic adipose tissue, which appears intensely hyperechoic Fig.

Any distortion of this smooth TRUS e della prostata induced the suspicion of extracapsular extension of the disease, except at the postero-lateral region of the base, where the neurovascular pedicle approaches the gland, the TRUS e della prostata contour appears hypoechoic and normally not defined.

TRUS image in midline transverse plane shows a prostate with a and without b extracapsular extension of disease. In RP, dissection of the posterior surface of the prostate is performed at the layer between the rectum and DF, and the prostate is removed with DF [ 15 ]. DF forms an important barrier to the spread of prostate and rectal malignancy. It is generally more adherent to the prostate, except in TRUS e della prostata states [ 1617 ].

Finally, the limitation of our study is that it was conducted in TRUS e della prostata single institution, a highly specialized tertiary care center, and the results may not be generalizable to community practices, especially those with less experienced ultrasound interpreters.

In our opinion, it is very important to recognize preoperatively the possibility of extracapsular extension cancer to the DF and the wall of the rectum, through an examination of simple and low cost as TRUS. The RP open surgery, laparoscopy or robotic-assisted procedures allows the dissection and identification of the different fasciae surrounding the prostate TRUS e della prostata the preservation of the neurovascular bundles [ 15 ].

However, fascial dissection remains conditioned by oncologic radicality, tumor location, TRUS e della prostata and Gleason score. It has a dramatic impact on quality of life due to impotence and the increasing risk of iatrogenic surgical margins. Therefore, the TRUS e della prostata demonstration TRUS e della prostata extracapsular disease in PCa has become essential in our clinical practice for choosing therapeutic treatment and compilation of informed consent in surgery.

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation institutional and national and with the Helsinki Declaration ofas revised in 5.

All patients provided written informed consent to enrolment in the study and to the inclusion in this article of information that could potentially lead to their identification. TRUS e della prostata study was conducted in accordance with all institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List J Ultrasound v. J Ultrasound. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received TRUS e della prostata 12; Accepted Jan Abstract Introduction Transrectal ultrasound TRUS has significantly improved the diagnostic rate, nevertheless, the correlation between findings on TRUS and clinically significant prostate cancer PCa is not TRUS e della prostata understood.

Methods Between April and Mayat our Department of Urology, the clinical anatomy of preoperative regions and excised specimens was reviewed macroscopically for 68 cases of radical retropubic prostatectomy for PCa and compared to ultrasound images TRUS e della prostata by TRUS.

Conclusion In our opinion, it is very important to recognize preoperatively the possibility TRUS e della prostata cancer extracapsular extension to the DF and to the rectum wall, using a simple and low cost examination as TRUS.

Introduction Radical prostatectomy RP is the main option in the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer PCa [ 1 ]. Materials and methods Between April and Mayat our Department of Urology, the excised surgical specimens were reviewed macroscopically for 68 cases of radical retropubic prostatectomy for PCa and compared to ultrasound images obtained by transrectal gray-scale B-mode prior to RP. Open in a separate window.

Results We prospectively examined 68 patients with PCa prior to open RP and classified as suspicious for extracapsular disease in conventional gray-scale ultrasound. Conclusion In our opinion, it is very important to recognize preoperatively the possibility of extracapsular extension cancer to the DF and the wall of the rectum, through an examination of simple and low TRUS e della prostata as TRUS. Informed consent All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation institutional and national and with the Helsinki Declaration ofas revised in 5.

Human and animal studies The study was conducted in accordance with all institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals. References 1. Barrè C. Open radical retropubic prostatectomy. Eur Urol.

Perioperative complications of radical retropubic prostatectomy in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer: a comparison with clinically localized prostate cancer. Asian J Androl. Quality of life and satisfaction with outcome among prostate-cancer survivors. N Engl J Med. Local staging of prostate cancer: comparative accuracy of T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging and transrectal ultrasound. Clin Imaging. Neuroanatomical approach to radical cystoprostatectomy with preservation of sexual function.

J Urol. Critical analysis of the current knowledge of surgical anatomy related to optimization of cancer control and preservation of continence and erection in candidates for radical prostatectomy. Raychaudhuri B, Cahill D. Pelvic fasciae in urology. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. Lidocaine spray administration during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy modified the discomfort and pain of the procedure: results of a randomized clinical trial.

Arch Ital Urol Androl. The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations. Denonvilliers CPD. Anatomie du perinee. Bull Soc Anat. Oncol Lett. Fascia surrounding the prostate: clinical and anatomical basis of the nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. Surg Radiol Anat. A comparison of the TRUS e della prostata performance of systematic versus ultrasound-guided biopsies of prostate cancer.

Eur Radiol.

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Language: English Italian. To illustrate the lesions detected with transrectal ultrasound TRUS in patients with hematospermia. This study included 74 male patients 25—73 years old affected by hematospermia. Clinical history was obtained and all patients underwent rectal examination as well as TRUS examination in both axial and coronal planes to evaluate the prostate, ejaculatory ducts and seminal vesicles. Biopsy was performed in 10 patients. Abnormalities were detected in 59 patients.

Seminal vesicle cysts were detected in 2 patients. Our conclusion is that TRUS is a safe, non-invasive technique which can be used to detect lesions of the prostate, seminal vesicles and the ejaculatory ducts in patients with hematospermia.

Illustrare le lesioni identificate con ecografia prostatica transrettale in pazienti con ematospermia. Il presente studio include 74 pazienti di sesso maschile 25—73 anni con ematospermia. Tutti i pazienti successivamente sono stati sottoposti a esame ecografico prostatico transrettale sui piani assiale e coronale della prostata, dei dotti eiaculatori e delle vescichette seminali dopo aver effettuato l'anamnesi e l'esplorazione TRUS e della prostata.

La biopsia è stata effettuata in 10 pazienti. In 59 pazienti sono stati identificati reperti patologici. The international nomenclature of human semen parameters defines hematospermia as the presence of fresh or altered blood in the ejaculate that appears brown.

There are several reasons why hematospermia may occur. It may be caused by inflammation, neoplastic formations or obstructive cystic lesions along the course of the ejaculatory ducts, and it may also be idiopathic.

Differentiation between the different causes is extremely important in order to plan adequate treatment in these patients. Hematospermia is mainly of inflammatory origin in young patients, but in older patients, it is usually due to a benign or malignant prostatic tumor TRUS e della prostata.

Non-invasive imaging is essential in the diagnostic work-up of men with hematospermia. Different imaging modalities have been used in the diagnosis. CT scan is not helpful due to poor visualization of the distal duct system [4]. MR imaging using an endorectal coil can depict the distal duct system, but it is expensive [5—7].

Transrectal ultrasound TRUS is more accurate in TRUS e della prostata visualization of the distal duct system and the various abnormalities that can provide diagnosis and etiological factors of hematospermia [8—12].

The aim of this work is to illustrate the lesions which were detected using TRUS in patients with hematospermia. A thorough clinical history was obtained and all patients underwent rectal examination of the prostate and seminal vesicle for swellings, nodules, and tenderness. Laboratory tests were expressed prostatic TRUS e della prostata EPS and semen analysis. Semen was tested for peroxidase-positive white blood cells WBCsfructose level and for bacterial cultures using suitably prepared semen dilutions.

Prostatic specific antigen PSA was evaluated in 10 patients. The study was performed according to the ethical principles for medical research contained in the declaration of Helsinki, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. All examinations were carried out by a radiologist with 15 years' experience in TRUS examinations. Patients were instructed to self-administer a cleansing enema the night before the examination. Examination was performed with the bladder half-full and the patient in left lateral decubitus position and the hips fully flexed.

The prostate, ejaculatory ducts and seminal vesicles were examined in axial and sagittal planes. Final diagnosis was made on the basis of typical sonographic appearance and site of calculi and cystic lesions.

Chronic prostatitis was confirmed by pus cells in the semen analysis and EPS. Prostate cancer and tuberculous prostatitis were confirmed by TRUS TRUS e della prostata biopsy. In 15 patients TRUS revealed no abnormality. Calculi were either diffuse or segmental Fig. They were associated with increased wall thickness of the ejaculatory duct in 6 patients.

Calculi of the prostate. Axial TRUS image shows two calculi with bright echogenic texture and posterior acoustic shadow in both ejaculatory ducts. Chronic prostatitis appeared as multiple hyperechoic areas associated with hypoechoic areas scattered within the prostatic parenchyma and around the ejaculatory ducts in 11 patients. A hypoechoic lesion was seen in the periurethral region in 3 patients Fig. The prostate was normal size but with irregular, capsular thickening.

Chronic prostatitis. A Axial TRUS image shows multiple discrete hyperechoic areas in the periurethral region associated with dilated and thickened TRUS e della prostata of the ejaculatory duct. B Axial TRUS image demonstrates mildly enlarged seminal vesicles with a few discrete hyperechoic regions. Axial TRUS image shows a hypoechoic area within the periurethral region.

Granulomatous prostatitis was detected in 3 patients. Bilharzial prostatitis was associated with enlargement of both seminal vesicles and discrete areas of calcification in one patient. Tuberculous prostatitis. Axial TRUS image shows multiple discrete hyperechoic areas and multiple discrete areas of calcification scattered within the prostate. Prostate carcinoma appeared as a hypoechoic focal lesion in the peripheral zone of the prostate in 3 patients, while 2 patients presented heterogeneous texture of the prostate Fig.

Cancer prostate. Axial TRUS image shows multiple discrete hypoechoic focal lesions scattered within the prostate mainly in the peripheral zone.

Median cysts included utricular and Mullerian duct cysts; paramedian cysts included seminal vesicle cysts and ejaculatory duct cysts. They were thin walled with no areas of calcification or TRUS e della prostata echoes. Utricular cyst. Axial TRUS image shows a small sized, tubular, thin walled midline cyst.

Mullerian duct cyst. Axial TRUS image shows awell-defined, large, thin walled midline cyst. Ejaculatory duct cyst. Axial TRUS image shows a thick walled cyst located along the course of the ejaculatory duct slightly off the midline. In this study, the commonest cause of hematospermia was calculi associated with chronic prostatitis. Hematospermia can occur for many reasons such as infectious or inflammatory disorders, prostate cancer or cystic lesions, or it may be idiopathic.

Several studies of hematospermia carried out using TRUS have revealed that the commonest cause of hematospermia is prostate calculi. Other causes include cysts, chronic prostatitis, prostatic hypertrophy and malignant lesions [8—12]. At TRUS, prostatic calculi appear as well circumscribed focal foci of increased echogenicity with or without posterior acoustic shadowing, situated in the prostate gland or seminal tract.

Patients affected by chronic prostatitis present diffuse, focal or multifocal hypoechoic lesions in the peripheral zone. These hypoechoic lesions are most commonly multifocal patchy areas but may also involve confluent areas of the peripheral zone. A hypoechoic rim along the outer periphery of the prostate has also been described in patients with chronic prostatitis, and histological analysis showed correlation with the degree of stromal fibrosis.

Inflammatory infiltration rarely appears as a focal hypoechoic lesion similar to prostate carcinoma; however, capsule deformity is uncommon and there is no capsular interruption. High-density echoes represent corpora amylacea deposition, and hypoechoic areas represent fibrosis and inflammation.

Chronic prostatitis may TRUS e della prostata associated with seminal vesiculitis. In mycobacterial infection, US shows multiple dense areas of calcification of the prostate gland, seminal vesicles and urinary bladder wall which may be associated with hypoechoic regions or abscess formation. The infection is a result of upper urinary tract seeding or primary genital tuberculosis [17,18]. Bilharzial infection of the prostate TRUS e della prostata and seminal vesicles should be suspected when calcification of the prostate and seminal vesicles is detected TRUS e della prostata TRUS and associated with multiple echogenic foci in the prostate with occasional dilation of the ejaculatory duct or seminal vesicle due to distal obstruction caused by fibrosis.

In this study, granulomatous lesions due to tuberculosis and bilharziasis of the prostate and seminal vesicle were associated with hematospermia. Prostate cancer is the commonest cause of cancer in men. The association between prostatic cancer and hematospermia has been established. Prostate TRUS e della prostata most commonly arises from the peripheral zone of the prostate gland and, occasionally, from the central zone.

On TRUS, prostate carcinoma is most often hypoechoic relative to the normal peripheral zone but may sometimes be isoechoic or even hyperechoic.

TRUS e della prostata in prostate size, particularly in the peripheral zone, capsular distortion, and loss of differentiation between the central gland and the peripheral zone may also be seen [20,21]. Utricular and Mullerian duct cysts typically occur in the midline of the prostate gland where ejaculatory duct cysts usually occur in paramedian location along the expected course of the ejaculatory duct. Mullerian duct cysts are often teardrop shaped and may extend beyond the posterosuperior margin of the prostate gland, particularly when they TRUS e della prostata large, whereas utricular cysts tend to be confined within the prostate gland.

Mullerian duct cysts do not normally communicate with TRUS e della prostata urethra or ejaculatory duct, whereas utricular cysts may present this characteristic [22—26]. Ejaculatory duct cysts appear as simple or minimally complex cysts along the course of the ejaculatory duct, which may or may not contain calculi. Seminal vesicle cysts appear as rounded or oval anechoic lesions within the seminal vesicle, often displaying the urinary bladder.

Simple cysts are anechoic, thin walled, rounded or TRUS e della prostata in shape, whereas complex cysts show increased echogenicity due to proteinaceous or hemorrhagic contents and may furthermore present internal septations, be thick walled and contain calculi [22,27,28]. We concluded that TRUS is a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive, radiation-free imaging technique which can be used to detect lesions of the prostate, seminal vesicles and the ejaculatory ducts in patient with hematospermia.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal TRUS e della prostata J Ultrasound v. J Ultrasound. Published online Oct Elhanblyb and A. Eldeak c. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Razek: ge. This article has been cited by TRUS e della prostata articles in PMC.

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We use cookies to improve your experience on our website. By continuing to browse this website you accept our cookie policy. A prostate biopsy involves TRUS e della prostata thin needles to take small samples of tissue from the prostate.

The tissue is then looked at under a microscope to check for cancer. Talk to your doctor or nurse about whether you will have a TRUS biopsy or a transperineal biopsy. In other hospitals you may have a biopsy first. Your doctor should talk TRUS e della prostata you about the advantages and disadvantages of having a biopsy. If you have any concerns, discuss them with your doctor or specialist nurse before you decide whether to have a biopsy. You may be given some antibiotics to take before your biopsy, either as tablets or an injection, to help prevent infection.

You might also be given some antibiotic tablets to take at home after your biopsy. This is the most common type of biopsy in the UK. The doctor or TRUS e della prostata uses a thin needle to take small samples of tissue from the prostate. The doctor or nurse will put an ultrasound probe into your back passage rectumusing a gel to make it more comfortable.

The ultrasound probe scans the prostate and an image TRUS e della prostata on a screen. The doctor or nurse uses TRUS e della prostata image to guide where they take the cells from. You will have an injection of local anaesthetic to numb the area around your prostate and reduce any discomfort. The doctor or nurse then puts a needle next to the probe in your back passage and inserts it through the wall of the back passage into the prostate.

They usually take 10 to 12 small pieces of tissue from different areas of the prostate. But, if the doctor is using the images from your MRI scan to guide the needle, they may take fewer samples. The biopsy takes 5 to 10 minutes. After your biopsy, your doctor may ask you to wait until you've urinated before you go home. This is because the biopsy can cause the prostate to swell, so they'll want to make sure you can urinate properly before you leave.

This is where the doctor inserts the biopsy needle into the prostate through the skin between the testicles and the back passage perineum. But many hospitals have stopped doing TRUS biopsies and now only do transperineal biopsies.

The doctor will put an ultrasound probe into your back passage, using a gel to make this easier. An image of the prostate will appear on a screen, which will help the doctor to guide the biopsy needle. This is known as a targeted biopsy.

Or they might decide to take up to 25 samples from different areas of the prostate. You may hear this called a template biopsy, as the doctor places a grid template over the area of skin between the testicles and back passage.

They then insert the needle through the holes in the grid, into the prostate. A transperineal biopsy usually takes about 20 to 40 minutes. If you've had a general anaesthetic, you will need to wait a few hours to recover from the anaesthetic before going home. And you will TRUS e della prostata to get someone to take you home.

Having a biopsy can cause side effects. These will affect each man differently, and you may not get all of the possible side effects. Some men feel pain or discomfort in their back passage rectum for a few days after a TRUS biopsy.

Others feel a dull ache along the underside of their penis or lower abdomen stomach area. If you have a transperineal biopsy, you may get some bruising and discomfort in the area where the needle went in for a few days afterwards. If you receive anal sex, wait about two weeks, or until TRUS e della prostata pain or discomfort from your biopsy has settled, before having sex again. Ask your doctor or nurse at the hospital for further advice. Some men find the biopsy painful, but others have only slight discomfort.

Your nurse or doctor may suggest taking mild pain-relieving drugs, such as paracetamol, to TRUS e della prostata with any pain. You may also notice blood in your semen for a couple of months — it might look red or dark brown. This is normal and should get better by itself. If it takes longer to clear up, or gets worse, you should see a doctor straight away. A small number of men less than 1 in who have a TRUS biopsy may have more serious bleeding in their urine or from their back passage rectum.

This can also happen if you have a transperineal biopsy but it isn't very common. If you have severe bleeding or are passing lots of blood clots, this is not normal. Some men get an infection after their biopsy. This is more likely after a TRUS biopsy than after a transperineal biopsy. But you might still get an infection even if you take antibiotics. If you have any of these symptoms, contact your doctor or nurse TRUS e della prostata the hospital straight away.

Around 3 in men three per cent who have a TRUS biopsy get a more serious infection that requires going to hospital. If the infection spreads into your blood, it can be very serious.

This is called sepsis. Symptoms of sepsis may include:. This happens because the biopsy can cause the prostate to swell, making it difficult to urinate. Acute urine retention may be more likely if you have a template biopsy. This is because TRUS e della prostata samples are taken, so there may be more swelling. Your doctor will make sure you can urinate before you go home after your biopsy. You might need a catheter for a few days. You can masturbate and have sex after a biopsy.

If you have blood in your semen, you might want to use a condom until the bleeding stops. A small number of men have problems getting or keeping an erection erectile dysfunction after having a biopsy. This may happen if the nerves that control erections are damaged during the biopsy.

The biopsy samples will be looked at under a microscope to check for any cancer cells. Your doctor will be sent a report, called a pathology report, with the results. The results will show TRUS e della prostata any cancer was found. They may also show how many biopsy samples contained cancer and how much cancer TRUS e della prostata present in each sample. It can take up to two weeks to get the results of the biopsy. Ask your doctor or nurse when you're likely to get the results. You might be sent a copy of the pathology report.

And you can ask to see copies of letters between the hospital and your GP. If you have TRUS e della prostata understanding any of the information, ask your doctor to explain it or speak to TRUS e della prostata Specialist Nurses. I asked to see the letters from the hospital to my GP. If cancer is found, this is likely to be a big shock, and you might TRUS e della prostata remember everything your doctor or nurse tells you.

It can help to take a family member, partner or friend with you for support when you get the results. You could also ask them to make some notes during the appointment. It could help to ask your doctor if you can record the appointment using your phone or another recording device.

But let your doctor or nurse know if and why you are recording them as not everyone is comfortable being recorded. Your biopsy results will show how aggressive the cancer is — in other words, how likely it is to spread outside the prostate. You might hear this called your Gleason grade, Gleason score, or grade group. The pattern is given a grade from 1 to 5 — this is called the Gleason grade.

Grades 1 and 2 are not included on pathology reports TRUS e della prostata they are similar to normal cells. If you have prostate cancer, you will have Gleason grades of 3, 4 and 5. The higher the grade, the more likely the cancer is to spread outside the prostate. There may be more than one grade of cancer in the biopsy samples. An overall Gleason score is worked out by adding together two Gleason grades. The first is the most common grade in all the samples. TRUS e della prostata these two TRUS e della prostata are added together, the total is called the Gleason score.

Your doctor might also talk about your "grade group". This is a new system for showing how aggressive your prostate cancer is likely to be. Your grade group will be a number between TRUS e della prostata and 5 see table. The higher your Gleason score or grade group, the more aggressive the cancer and the more likely it is to grow and spread. We've explained the different Gleason scores and grade groups that can be given after a prostate biopsy below. This is just a guide. Your doctor or nurse will talk you through what your results mean.

There are some cancer cells that look likely to grow at a moderate rate grade group 2. There are some cancer cells that look likely to grow slowly grade group 3.